Alan Turing

Alan Turing, Complete Alan Matheson Turing (23 June 1912, London, England-1 June 1954, died Wilmslow, Cheshire), British mathematician and logician. In mathematics, cryptanalysis, logic, philosophy, and mathematical biology, as well as new fields called computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life. Early life and career Turing, the son of a civil servant, was educated at a prestigious private school. He entered Cambridge University in 1931 to study mathematics. After graduating in 1934, he was admitted for a study of probability theory and was elected to a fellowship at King's College (his college since 1931). In 1936, Turing's original paper "On Computable Numbers, with the Application to the Entscheidungsproblem [Decision Problem]" was recommended by the American mathematical logician, Alonzo Church. Another way. The Turing method, but not the less church method, was very important to the emerging science of computing. Later that year, Turing moved to Princeton University to earn his PhD. In mathematical logic under the guidance of the Church (completed in 1938). Early Life And Career What the mathematicians called the "effective" way to solve the problem was simply a way that a human mathematical clerk working in the dark could carry. In the days of Turing, these funnel workers were actually called "computers," and human computers performed some aspects of the work later done by electronic computers. Early Life And Career sought an effective way to solve the basic mathematical problem of determining exactly which mathematical statements can and cannot be proved within a given formal mathematical system. The method of determining this is called the decision method. In 1936, Turing and Church independently showed that there was generally no solution to the Early Life And Career problem, proving that a consistent and formal computing system lacked an effective decision method. In fact, Turing and Church have shown that even some purely logical systems, much weaker than arithmetic, have no effective way of making decisions. This result and others, especially the mathematician-the logicist Kurt Gödel's incomplete result, find some formal systems that reduce whole mathematics to a way that (human) computers can perform. Shattered the expectations he had. In the course of his research on the Entscheidungs ​​problem, Turing invented the Universal Turing Machine, an abstract computing machine that encapsulates the basic logical principles of digital computers. Church Turing thesis An important step in Turing's discussion of the Early Life And Career was the claim, now called Church Turing's paper, that everything that humans can compute can also be computed on a universal Turing machine. This claim is important because it shows the limits of human calculations. Instead the church in his work used the theory that every human computable function is the same as a lambda definable function, a positive integer function whose value can be computed by an iterative permutation process. .. Turing showed in 1936 that the thesis of the Church is equivalent to his thesis by proving that all lambda definable functions are computable by the universal Turing machine. In a review of Turing's research, Church acknowledged the excellence of Tailing's formulation to himself (which did not mention computing machines), and the concept of computability by Turing machines was "effective. It has the advantage of making an identification. " "

Cryptanalyst Returning from the United States to a fellowship at King's College in the summer of 1938, Turing attended the Government Code and the Cipher School and moved to the organization's wartime headquarters at the outbreak of the war with Germany in September 1939. At Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire. A few weeks ago, the Polish government gave Britain and France details of Poland's success against the Enigma, the main cryptographic machine used by the German military to encrypt wireless communications. In 1932, a small team of Polish mathematicians and cryptanalysts led by Marian Rezhevski succeeded in deducing the internal wiring of the Enigma, and by 1938, Rezhevski's team had a bomba (a type of Polish ice cream). ). Bomba relies on German operating procedures for its success, and these procedures were changed in May 1940, making Bomba useless. From the fall of 1939 to the spring of 1940, Turing et al. Designed a cylinder, a related, but very different, code-breaking machine. For the rest of the war, the bombs provided a large amount of military intelligence to the Allies. By early 1942, Bletchley Park cryptanalysts were decrypting about 39,000 intercepted messages each month. This reached over 84,000 monthly. In 1942, Turing also devised the first systematic method of decrypting a message encrypted by a sophisticated German cryptographic machine, which the British called "Tanny". At the end of the war, Turing became an officer of the Order of Great Britain (OBE) for the task of deciphering it. Computer designer In 1945, when the war ended, Turing was adopted by the National Institute of Physics (NPL) in London to create electronic computers. The design of his Automatic Computation Engine (ACE) was the first complete specification of a general purpose digital computer for electronic stored programs. If Turing's ACE was built according to his plan, it had much more memory and was faster than any other early computer. However, his colleagues at NPL found that it was too difficult to try engineering and produced a much smaller machine, the pilot model ACE (1950). NPL lost the race to build the world's first practical electronic stored program digital computer. In June 1948, he honored the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester. Depressed by the delay at the NPL, Turing became Deputy Director. That year's Computer Research Institute (there was no director). His earlier theoretical notion of a universal Turing machine had a fundamental impact on Manchester's computer project from the beginning. After Turing arrived in Manchester, his main contribution to the development of computers was to design input / output systems using Bletchley Park technology and to design their programming systems. He also created the first programming manual and the programming system was used on the first market-ready electronic digital computer (1951), the Ferranti Mark I. Pioneer of artificial intelligence Turing was the founder of artificial intelligence and modern cognitive science, and the human brain was an early major index of the hypothesis that it was largely a digital computing machine. He theorized that the cortex at birth was an "unorganized machine," which was organized through "training" into a "universal machine or something similar." Turing proposed what became known as the Turing test (1950) as a measure of whether an artificial computer was thinking. last year Turing was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in March 1951. This is a great honor, but his life was getting very difficult. In March 1952, he was convicted of "terrible lewdness," or homosexuality, of the then British crime, and was sentenced to a 12-month hormone "cure." Due to his criminal history, I could not work again at the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), the post-war cryptanalysis center of the British government. Turing spent the rest of his short career in Manchester and was appointed to a specially created reader of computing theory in May 1953. Since 1951, Turing has been working on what is now called artificial life. He published "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" in 1952 and described aspects of his research on the evolution of biological morphology and patterns. Turing used Manchester's Ferranti Mark I computer to model his hypothetical chemical mechanism for generating animal and plant anatomy.

During this groundbreaking study, Turing was found dead in his bed poisoned by cyanide. The official verdict was suicide, but no motive was established in the 1954 survey. His death is often the result of hormonal "treatments" that were taken by the authorities after a gay trial. Still, he died more than a year after the end of his hormones, and in any case, his elastic friend Turing was cruelly treated by his close friend Peter Hilton to "take care". Nor was there any evidence that Turing was trying to take his life or to disturb his mental balance to judge in the records of the investigation (as the coroner argued. To). In fact, his mental state seemed unnoticeable at the time. Although he cannot deny suicide, it is possible that his death was just an accident. This is a result of inhalation of cyanide gas from an experiment in a small lab next to the bedroom. Given that Turing was familiar with cryptanalysis at the time homosexuals were seen as a threat to national security, the secret service murder cannot be completely ruled out. By the beginning of the 21st century, Turing's prosecution for being gay was infamous. In 2009, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, who spoke on behalf of the British Government, publicly apologized for Turing's "totally unfair" treatment. Four years later, Queen Elizabeth II pardoned Turing.

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